When the channelled feed was invented (by one of the companies I mentioned in the background file), the concept was truly revolutionary and feverish development commenced in improving the writing system and the design.
With such a simple device as the channelled feed, it was clear that the invention was to be much copied, so the companies producing pens had to make a name for themselves in the market, presumably by emphasising the reliability of their product or the originality of their invention.
Initially all these pens were made of black hard rubber and looked very similar. Soon gold bands were added as adornment and red and black mottled hard rubber was used as an alternative .
The hard rubber acquired chasing , elegant twist patterns and during the eighteen nineties, gold and silver coverings with mother of pearl or abalone panels .